F1 cars are very different to every other type of race car in many different ways. Their inner components are tuned for maximum performance, while the chassis and various parts on the outside of the car look very different to your everyday car as well. So, do F1 cars have a clutch?
F1 cars do have a clutch, but not in the same way that your manual car has a clutch. F1 car clutches operate automatically for all gear changes during a race, but they are operated manually at the start of the race to get into first gear, and sometimes if the driver spins or needs to reverse.
If you were to sit in an F1 car, you may wonder where the clutch is, as there is no pedal. Although this might not be a shock to drivers of an automatic car, those used to a manual may be confused. So, let’s go into more detail about the clutch in an F1 car.
How Does A Clutch Work?
The clutch is something that drivers of manual cars will be very aware of, however automatic cars don’t have clutch pedals, so it may be something you are unfamiliar with. We will go into the differences of the clutch mechanisms in both of these types of transmission in a minute, but first let’s discuss what a clutch is.
Your car’s internals are made up of many different components. The main ones to consider here are the engine and the transmission. Of course, the engine is what drives the car, giving it power via combustion of fuel. The transmission is something you may not be as familiar with, but it is an integral part that helps to make the most of the engine’s power.
The transmission is what converts the energy released by the engine into mechanical drive through a system of gears. These gears rotate, and so does the shaft that is connected to the engine. The clutch essentially bridges the gap between the gears and the engine shaft. The main goals of the transmission are to limit the revs of the engine, thus improving performance and fuel efficiency.
This is why you start in low gears and work your way up to high gears as your speed increases. With each gear change, you disengage the clutch, removing this bridge, and while the engine keeps running you select a new gear – or in the case of an automatic car it does it for you – before engaging the clutch once again in the newly selected gear.
If you wanted to stop your car without disengaging the clutch, you wouldn’t be able to. As you slow down, your wheels’ rotation slows to a stop, but the engine keeps running. If you don’t, or if the car didn’t, disengage the clutch, the car would stall. This is because the clutch allows you temporarily break the connection between the engine and the transmission.
Manual vs Automatic
As the name suggests, a manual transmission requires you to manually disengage the clutch in order to change gears or put the car into neutral. As you speed up, your RPMs will increase, and you will start to run out of torque if you don’t shift up through your gears. Likewise, if you don’t shift down when slowing down you will run out of power and the car might stall.
If you want to stop completely, you will disengage the clutch and then put the car into neutral (or you will keep your foot pressed down until you want to move again, but this is generally not advised as it may cause excessive wear on the clutch). In this case, you are manually breaking the connection between your engine and your transmission.
In an automatic car, there is still a clutch system, just without the pedal and the need for the input from the driver. The clutch system in an automatic is usually made up of several clutch plates that work to change the gears in combination with what is known as a torque converter. It basically multiplies the torque from the engine, to prevent the car from stalling at low RPMs.
Automatic cars may also feature double clutch mechanisms. This is when the transmission has two clutch shafts: one for the odd gears and one for the even gears. This makes for very fast and smooth gear changes, as before one clutch is disengaged the next one is engaged, ready to take over when the first is released.
This means there is almost no loss in power due to slippage of a torque converter, and it helps to prevent excessive wear of other internal components too. This makes dual clutch systems very popular for automatic transmissions. However, they are not used in F1 cars, as they instead use a very unique clutch mechanism that is even more efficient.
How An F1 Car Clutch Works
F1 cars do contain a clutch, but it is a single clutch, usually made out of carbon. The whole thing weighs as little as 1.5kg, with a normal clutch system weighing upwards of 50kg in some cases. This weight saving is critical in F1, where there is so much performance to be gained by simply cutting down the weight of various components.
F1 cars are not traditional automatics, as they are more like semi-automatics. The driver operates the gears using two paddles behind the steering wheel, which you will find on plenty of road cars as well. There are two paddles that function as manual clutches however, but only when the driver is moving from a complete stop, and then he won’t use the clutch manually again.
The car will also not automatically change gear for the driver, so he must do so using the paddles every time. This is where the unique clutch of an F1 car comes in. As performance is everything, and the driver always wants to have access to maximum power, the clutch used in F1 cars is part of a seamless-shift gearbox.
This allows for very rapid gear shifts, with no loss in power through clutch slippage. Similar to the dual clutch system discussed in the previous section, it basically makes the transitions as fast as possible through the use of multiple clutch plates. So, although F1 cars don’t have a clutch pedal like in a manual, they do still have a clutch system within the internals.
All cars with a gearbox have a clutch, and so an F1 car is included here. However, the clutch system in an F1 car is very different to that which you will find in your own car, and most race cars for that matter. With a seamless shift, semi-automatic transmission, the clutch in an F1 car allows the drivers to get maximum power in every gear, for maximum performance.