If you have ever watched an F1 race, you will have heard the term DRS plenty of times. If you are not familiar with F1 and the technical side of things, it can be very confusing. DRS has been integral to the sport since its introduction in 2011, but many don’t know what DRS means or how it works.
DRS in F1 stands for Drag Reduction System (introduced in 2011), and it is an adjustable part of the rear wing, used by drivers looking to overtake those in front of them. DRS can only be used when certain conditions are met, such as when a driver is within 1 second of another car.
These conditions vary depending on the stage of the race, and how big the gap is between the two drivers. Below, we will go over the mechanisms involved and these various conditions, to give you an understanding of why DRS is so important in Formula 1.
What Is DRS And How Does It Work?
DRS stands for Drag Reduction System, and it is an adjustable part of the rear wing, used by drivers trying to make an overtake. It can only be used when certain conditions are met. It was introduced in 2011, and since then it has become integral to the sport as drivers often need DRS to overtake.
The Role Of The Rear Wing
F1 cars have several components, and one of these is the rear wing. This consists of a fixed component and an adjustable component. F1 cars are designed to have a lot of downforce in order to provide them with as much grip as possible, as this allows them to take corners at very high speeds. However, this means the cars suffer in the aerodynamics department, and so balancing each is key.
The rear wing allows the air above the car to push the car down to the ground, giving the tires more grip without adding weight to the car. However, this means the car loses some of its speed as the air hits the wing. In corners, speed is gained through grip, but on straights the car wants to have as little drag as possible. Downforce is created through air resistance, needed for cornering.
Straights vs Corners
But on the straights downforce is less essential, and the air resistance acts as a dragging force against the car’s forward momentum. Thus, in order to go faster, cars must reduce the amount of drag without sacrificing too much downforce in the corners. Enter DRS, or the drag reduction system, which is a variable component of the rear wing.
When the variable component is closed, the wing looks normal and provides the usual amount of downforce. However, when the driver hits the DRS button, the top part of the wing opens up, which creates a gap through which the air can flow, thus reducing drag. This means the car can go faster – up to around 12 kph faster on the straights. This gives them the edge when overtaking.
Who Controls DRS In F1?
The driver controls DRS in F1, it is not automatic. They have a button on their steering wheel that activates the system, opening the flap in the rear wing to reduce drag and increase top speed. They can only activate DRS if they are within 1 second of the car in front at the DRS detection zone.
The driver must press a button on their steering wheel to activate it, but the DRS flap on the rear wing will shut automatically as soon as the driver lifts their foot off the throttle or applies the brake, or if they pass the end of the DRS zone, whichever comes first.
The Rules Of F1 DRS
The rules of DRS are that it can only be used when a trailing driver is within 1 second of the car in front, and the race director deems the conditions safe enough to allow for DRS to be used (it has to be dry and 2 laps after any stoppages). DRS can only be used within dedicated zones on the track.
A Substantial Gain
Although the mechanisms used in DRS can seem complex, the main takeaway is that it allows the drivers to gain around 12 kph of speed over the course of the straights on the track when trying to overtake. But they can’t simply keep the button pressed as and when they like throughout the race, as there are certain conditions that need to be met before they can use it.
The first and perhaps most important rule regarding DRS concerns the gap between you and the car in front that you are trying to overtake. The gap between you and the driver in front must be within one second for you to be able to use DRS. This means you need to be quite close to be able to use it, and even then, there are only certain areas of the track that you can use it.
Where Are The DRS Zones?
The DRS zones at an F1 circuit are usually on the longest straights. Circuits tend to have between 1 and 4 DRS zones, and they are always preceded by a DRS detection zone. Monaco, for example, has 1 DRS zone, while the Red Bull Ring and the Bahrain circuit each have 3 DRS zones.
These zones differ in length, and they consist of a detection point and an activation zone. There are sensors at the detection points that determine the gap between the two cars, and if it is within one second the chasing car can press their DRS button in the activation none.
The leading car can only use their DRS as a defense mechanism if they are also within one second of a car in front of them. Other conditions determine at which points in the race DRS can be used. It cannot be used within the first two laps of the race start, restart, or after a safety car has been deployed. It may also not be enabled if the FIA deems it to be unsafe, such as due to heavy rain.
There is no limit to how many times DRS can be used during an F1 race. As long as the driver is within 1 second of the driver in front when they pass the DRS detection zone, and as long as DRS has been enabled by the race director at that point, they can use DRS.
Do F1 Cars Use DRS In Qualifying?
F1 cars do use DRS in qualifying. Just like in the race, the cars can only use DRS in dedicated DRS zones. The difference, however, is that the drivers don’t need to be within 1 second of the car in front to use DRS in qualifying, but they can still only use it within the DRS zones.
These rules and restrictions on the use of DRS prevent it from being abused by drivers. If the leading car of the race were to use DRS as often as they liked they would likely never be caught up by the chasing drivers. Likewise, if the car in front could use it as a defense mechanism at any time, there would be no advantage to the chasing car. But why was it introduced?
Why DRS Exists In F1
Balancing The Advantage
Before we can say why DRS was introduced in the first place, we need to gain a basic understanding of what happens when a car is chasing another car. Essentially, F1 cars leave trails of what is called “dirty air” behind them. This is due to the aerodynamic and downforce packages on the car that manipulate the way that the air travels over and under the car.
When the air hits the front and rear wings, along with other components of the car, it is basically thrown around out the back of the car in a very turbulent fashion. This means the leading car can cut through the air with ease, while leaving very volatile air behind it. Cars chasing this car now have to drive through this turbulent air.
Clean Air vs Dirty Air
The clean air in front of the leading car is so easy to drive through, and it allows the car to generate maximum downforce as well. However, turbulent air does not generate as much downforce on the car behind. This means that when cars are chasing others through corners, they cannot go as fast as they have less grip.
This is not as much of a problem on the straights, but through corners this means vital time can be lost due to the dirty air they need to drive through. This is why DRS was introduced. As the two cars emerge from the corner onto the straight, the car behind has now lost a lot of time due to lack of downforce. So, when it comes to the straight, the gap between the two cars increases.
A Level Playing Field
With the DRS zone however, as long as this gap is within a second, the chasing car can gain the advantage back. With DRS open, they can catch up to the car in front with more ease, levelling the playing field and giving them a better chance to overtake. This makes the racing fairer and less reliant on clean air, while also making it more exciting for the fans with more overtakes.
Obviously, DRS is not the magic overtake button that many people perceive it to be. Not only is it only useable in certain situations, but whether the car can overtake the car in front depends largely on the actual abilities of each vehicle. The car needs to have enough power and speed to get past, and then when they get to the next corner the driver needs to try and defend his new position.
The Best Solution Available Right Now
Many people do not like DRS and believe it to be an artificial way of overtaking. But with so much downforce generated by the modern F1 cars, it is very difficult to overtake otherwise due to the massive difference in advantage through clean air versus dirty air. And this is the main reason that DRS is still in F1, and will be until the problem of dirty, turbulent air is solved.
Is DRS Fair?
DRS is fair as every driver has the ability to use it. DRS can only be used when conditions allow and the trailing driver is close enough to the driver in front, so drivers must effectively work to be able to earn the usage of DRS. On some tracks, DRS is more powerful than on others.
The clear advantage of the drag reduction system, or DRS, is that it presents clear opportunities for overtaking on the straights. However, the disadvantage is that many fans, teams, and drivers perceive this as artificial, and DRS can only be used when the race director deems it safe to do so.
DRS in F1 is a component of the rear wing that allows a flap to open when a driver is within 1 second of a car in front. This reduces the drag, giving DRS its name – Drag Reduction System. This reduced drag allows cars, under certain conditions, to make easier overtakes on cars in front.